The exact scoring system depends on the Bundesland, in which one takes Abitur. Passing the Abitur usually requires a composite score of at least 50%. Students with a score below that minimum fail and do not receive an Abitur . There are some other conditions that the student also has to meet in order to receive the Abitur : taking mandatory courses in selected subject areas, and limits to the number of failing grades in core subjects. Finally, students often have the option of omitting some courses from their composite score if they have taken more courses than the minimum required.
In the following table of consonant phonemes, /θ/ and /ʎ/ are marked with an asterisk (*) to indicate that they are preserved only in some dialects. In most dialects they have been merged, respectively, with /s/ and /ʝ/ , in the mergers called, respectively, seseo and yeísmo . The phoneme /ʃ/ is in parentheses () to indicate that it appears only in loanwords . Each of the voiced obstruent phonemes /b/ , /d/ , /ʝ/ , and /ɡ/ appears to the right of a pair of voiceless phonemes, to indicate that, while the voiceless phonemes maintain a phonemic contrast between plosive (or affricate) and fricative, the voiced ones alternate allophonically (. without phonemic contrast) between plosive and approximant pronunciations.